Henry Payne Blog

Cartoon: Coal Trumps Wind

Posted by hpayne on March 29, 2017


Cartoon: Trump and the Freedom Caucus

Posted by hpayne on March 27, 2017


Cartoon: Art of Debacle

Posted by hpayne on March 27, 2017


What if GM built a Corvette SUV?

Posted by hpayne on March 27, 2017


What if Chevrolet made a Corvette SUV?

Maybe that’s not so far-fetched. Corvette is a singular car within Chevrolet, and in many ways is a performance brand unto itself. Almost every performance brand now has its own crossover; the most prominent of which is Porsche’s money-machine, the Cayenne.

If Corvette did make an SUV, what would it look like? Detroit News presentation editor Jamie Hollar drew his own concept car, shown here. And The Detroit News talked to ex-GM big wigs, auto analysts and car enthusiasts for their ideas on what the high-performance SUV should be.

Since the first Jeep sport utility appeared in 1984, the automotive landscape has been transformed by high-riding, five-door SUVs with visibility and utility to spare. Even legendary performance brands that once built only ground-hugging sports cars have jumped in. Beginning with Porsche in 2003, SUVs have become a performance-maker’s goldmine. Nearly every performance badge wants a piece of the lucrative ute market.

Notably absent is the Corvette, America’s V-8-powered workingman’s superhero.

Though technically a Chevrolet product, the Corvette long ago became an iconic nameplate that’s equal to Europe’s elite sports car names. It’s faster than the Porsche 911, Jaguar F-Type, Alfa Romeo 4C and Lamborghini Huracan. And while those brands have all exploited their athletic images to expand into sport utilities — the Jaguar F-Pace, Alfa Stelvio and Lamborghini Urus — the Corvette remains a one-off.

“There’s certainly precedent for non-traditional SUV makers to jump into the market,” says Karl Brauer, senior analyst for Kelley Blue Book. “Every time one of them has jumped in, it has worked.”

With nearly two-thirds of Porsche buyers opting for SUVs, Porsche makes up a whopping one-third of Volkswagen Group’s profits while generating only 2.3 percent of its sales, according to MotleyFool.com. “The idea of a Porsche SUV still rubs sports-car purists the wrong way, but it has been a spectacularly profitable product for the brand,” says John Rosevear, senior auto specialist for the website.

GM executives won’t talk about future vehicles — and even if they did, there’s no evidence a sport utility is in the works. But everywhere we went, car fans loved the idea. The consensus was if Corvette were to build it, it would be a home run.

So let’s give this dream car concept a name. We called our concept the Corvette XC7: “X” for crossover, “C7” for the sports car’s seventh-generation architecture.

“XC7 and X06 (mirroring the high-performance version’s Z06 name) are great starters for naming,” says Tom Wallace, the retired GM engineer who ran Chevrolet’s Corvette program from 2006-08. “Stingray is off limits.”

It would be essential that any Corvette crossover share the sports car’s DNA.

“Front engine, rear drive, with AWD option. Lots of aluminum in the structure,” muses Wallace. “Aluminum is mandatory to support the theme that Corvette embraces to be the lightest vehicle in its class. The two V-8s from the Corvette stable are also a must.”

That means the 460-horse V-8 shared with the base C7 sports car — or for the Z06 version, the supercharged 650-horsepower V-8 for what might be the fastest SUV ever built. Considering the rear-wheel drive Z06 sports car is slightly slower from 0-60 than its all-wheel drive 540-horsepower Porsche Turbo rival, an all-wheel drive X06 crossover should be competitive with the all-wheel drive Cayenne Turbo’s 3.8-second, 0-60 romp.

“Maximum Bob” Lutz, the ex-vice president of GM product design who is revered for bringing back The General’s design mojo, agrees with Wallace’s assessment: “Like the Cayenne, the appeal of the ’Vette SUV would be RWD proportions. It should, in fact, have a silhouette not too different from a Cayenne.”

Start with the C7’s dramatic, sculpted lines created by Tom Peters and widely recognized as one of the best designs in Corvette’s 54 years. All performance SUVs are essentially vertically stretched, five-door versions of familiar sports coupes, giving them an inherently heavy look compared to low-slung two-seaters.

But angular designs like our mock XC7 or Lamborghini’s Urus show that it’s possible to break with the soap-bar shapes of the Porsche Cayenne and Maserati Levante. With Corvette’s trademark shark nose, scooped hood and quad exhaust pipes, it would drip with menace.

Inside, the XC7 would share the C7’s acclaimed interior: comfortable seats, stitched dash and quality trim materials. Naturally, the signature “oh, crap” passenger grab-handles from the sports car would carry over (for those times when dad is seized by the need for speed).

Other parts like transmissions and all-wheel drive systems could come from common GM parts bins, which has been key in keeping Corvette costs down over the years. “To engineer the vehicle, I would have to combine some of the Corvette team with some of the SUV team,” says Wallace.

Price? “More than the $40,000 Cadillac XT5, but about 10 grand below” a $60,000 base V-6 Cayenne, suggests Lutz.

But the chassis might be a deal breaker. “To be successful, this vehicle would require an all-new RWD/AWD architecture, which currently does not exist,” says Lutz. “That’s high investment for relatively low volume.”

Porsche was able to “lunch off” the VW Touareg chassis, which enabled Porsche to package its V-8 engine longitudinally. GM’s new C1XX platform is the backbone for the Cadillac XT5 and GMC Acadia utilities; it has been lauded for its stiffness and light weight. But its front-wheel drive, transverse engine layout appears ill-suited for our ambitious XC7.

“The Corvette ute probably would be a stand-alone architecture (or a major modification of an existing architecture), so volume would be critical to call it a business success,” Wallace believes.

Cost aside, Lutz says there is another obstacle to an XC7: “The reason a Corvette SUV won’t happen is the business case would be tough. Besides cannibalizing ‘normal’ Corvettes, it can also be expected to damage GMC and certainly the Cadillac XT5.”

And yet, Lutz acknowledges the unique draw of the Corvette: “Corvette is a powerful brand that should be developed. Go upmarket with a mid-engine sedan using big Cadillac CT6 architecture, and maybe eventually something like Cayenne. They would split it off from Chevrolet — nobody makes that connection anyway.”

Kelley Blue Book’s Brauer says financial analysts would grill GM on creating another brand so soon after it axed Pontiac, Hummer and Saturn in bankruptcy. “But history would suggest there is no downside to a performance brand expanding into SUVs,” he says. “Non-Corvette owners who couldn’t justify a two-seat sports car could finally put a Corvette badge in their garage.”

With the formula laid out here, Wallace says he has no doubt “the product would be a smash hit.”

“Product excellence usually leads to business success,” he says. He grins. “Let’s convince GM to do it!”

Henry Payne is auto critic for The Detroit News. Find him at hpayne@detroitnews.com or Twitter @HenryEPayne.

Corvette XC7 SUV concept

Power plant 6.2-liter, push-rod V-8 (XC7); 6.2-liter, supercharged V-8 (X06)
Transmission 10-speed automatic; 8-speed automatic
Weight Est. 4,100 pounds (AWD)
Price $50,000 base est. ($75,000 for X06 performance version)
Power 460 horsepower, 465 pound-feet of torque (V-8); 650 horsepower, 650 pound-feet of torque (supercharged V-8)
Performance 0-60 mph, 3.6 seconds (X06 with supercharged V-8 est.)
Fuel economy Thirsty

Report card

Lows Expensive new platform; might cannibalize Cadillac SUV sales

Design your own Corvette SUV

What do you think a Corvette SUV should look like?

Create your own design and enter The Detroit News design contest. Our team of judges — ex-Corvette chief engineer Tom Wallace, Detroit News auto columnist Henry Payne and Detroit News presentation editor Jamie Hollar — will pick a winner. Top entries will be published in The Detroit News and at detroitnews.com.

Entries can be done in any medium: computer rendering, pencil sketch, watercolor, whatever you prefer. Send a high-resolution copy by email to Henry Payne at hpayne@detroitnews.com.


Cartoon: GOP House Wreck

Posted by hpayne on March 27, 2017


Cartoon: London Terror Attack

Posted by hpayne on March 25, 2017


Cartoon: Gorsuch Umpire

Posted by hpayne on March 25, 2017


Cartoon: Obama Surveillance?

Posted by hpayne on March 25, 2017


Payne: Hydrogen-fuel Honda Clarity, first drive

Posted by hpayne on March 25, 2017


I’m tooling around the hills of Santa Barbara in a 2017 Honda Clarity Fuel Cell. Powered by the fusion of hydrogen and oxygen, the Clarity emits only water, which could be the solution to California’s drought issues: drive to work, produce H20, water your garden when you get home.

But that’s not why the Clarity is only available out here in La La Land. Let me explain.

When my motorhead pals visit Michigan, they notice our state is a little different. They remark on the prevalence of Detroit-made cars rarely seen elsewhere — Lincolns, Cadillacs, Buicks. They get it, of course. Motown is the capital of U.S. autos even if they don’t dominate the landscape like they once did.

Visit California and it’s a lot different. Indeed, the Left Coast could be its own country.

Travel to $6-a-gallon Europe and the narrow streets are clogged with tiny tin cans rarely seen on this side of the pond: VW Polos, Mercedes B-Class, Smart ForTwos. The wocka-wocka of diesel engines is everywhere thanks to favorable tax treatment from devout green governments that believe fossil fuels a sin. So too, California.

The Green Church here worships the polar bear, so the tax credits flow — not to nitrogen oxide-heavy diesels but to electric vehicles. There are whole schools of fish rarely seen elsewhere on the continent: the Nissan Leaf, Ford C-Max, lots of Toyota Priuses and hydrogen-powered cars like my Clarity tester. Gas prices here average $3.20 a gallon, but Californians get a fat $5,000 rebate if they choose an electrified vehicle.

California’s GDP would make it the world’s sixth-richest country, and it’s America’s biggest auto market. That gives Sacramento’s green priests enormous market power. By 2025, 15 percent of automakers’ sales here must be “zero-emission vehicles” powered by batteries or fuel cells whether customers want them or not.

Thus my Clarity.

The name will be familiar to green nerds as the 2007 spawn of Honda’s hydrogen experiments. The 2017 is available not just with the moon-shot hydrogen fuel cell, but also in pure electric and plug-in versions like the compact Prius (hybrid/EV/plug-in variants) or Hyundai Ioniq (hybrid/EV/plug-in).

The plug-in Clarity, which starts in the mid-$30,000 range, will take on competitors like the Chevy Volt and Tesla Model 3 in all 50 states.

The Clarity Fuel Cell is a more exotic animal built only for California (the pure-electric will also be for that state only). Though Honda lists a sticker price of $59,365, the Clarity Fuel Cell is only available for lease at an expensive $369 per month. Which is a steal. Let me explain.

The upper-$300s sounds more like a first-class Acura than a coach-class Honda ($200 for a mid-size Accord, $170 for a Civic). But California’s $5,000 rebate reduces the Clarity’s payment by $140 a month, and Honda throws in the hydrogen fuel for free. That’s a $160-a-month fuel savings if you’re the average Accord driver.

Do the math: $369 minus $140 minus $160 equals $69 a month.

My Left Coast media peers took notice. “Are you kidding? I’ll take it for 69 bucks!” said one. “I’ve been paying California taxes through the nose subsidizing Leo DiCaprio’s Teslas and Fiskers. It’s my turn for a break!”

Wise-cracking scribes aside, Clarity suitors are likely to be green nerds. The Clarity is a natural date for the social-climbing owner of a Prius, Accord hybrid or Ford Fusion Energi.

The Clarity’s face makes a good first impression. The familiar Honda grille and jewel-eye headlamps are framed by vertical LED running lights that remind of a Cadillac CT6.

But then its wardrobe gets geeky. Hondas sit on front-wheel-drive platforms, but the Clarity’s front overhang is particularly long thanks to the drivetrain’s front packaging and fuel-efficient aero-ducts.

Green chic runs amok in the rear where the Clarity borrows a dual-window from green icons Prius and Chevy Volt. Covered aero-fenders recall Honda’s ill-fated nerd classic, the compact Insight. Think of the Clarity as a grown-up Insight.

Mature suede and leather materials distinguish the interior. The push-button shifter bridges console storage for smartphones and purses. Honda offers its first heads-up display. There’s seating for five.

But what you really want to know is whether I needed a hazmat suit to fuel this rolling Hindenburg.

The good news: Pumping hydrogen these days is as easy, safe and fast as gasoline. Pulling into a Santa Barbara Shell station, I nuzzled the Clarity up to the hydrogen pump, selected the quicker 10,000-psi setting, locked the nozzle over the Honda’s narrow filler and was done in minutes. The massive hydrogen tank eats into the Clarity’s trunk space (good luck storing big suitcases back there), but Honda assures that it’s built to withstand a punt in the rear by an SUV piloted by an oblivious texter.

The bad news? Hydrogen has serious infrastructure and environmental problems. Where filling stations and cell-tower infrastructure naturally followed the explosive growth of gas cars and portable phones, no one’s lining up to fuel scarce hydrogen cars (only Toyota and Hyundai make Clarity competitors). Which is why the government is building a 100-station infrastructure, one costly $1.5 million pump at a time. And extracting hydrogen from water burns a lot of energy. As environmentalist Joseph Romm bluntly put it: “As a CO2 reducer, hydrogen stinks.”

Back on the road, I stomp the gas — er, electrons — and the result is dynamite.

The fuel cell spins an electric motor which launches the 4,134-pound sedan like a catapult or a slower Tesla Model S. Unlike the Model S, the Clarity is a front-wheel driver, but still manages quick getaways without spasms of torque steer.

I drove the Clarity like a Motor City madman and occasionally explored its 103-mph top speed. Like an electric car, a lead foot quickly degrades the fuel cell’s range. But unlike the 240-mile Tesla and Bolt EVs, the Clarity gets a gas-like 369 miles of range. Under my whip, the digital instrument display still projected 264 miles of range until the next hydrogen station. If you can find one.

Given its limitations, Clarity should meet its modest Republic of California compliance sales goals. That is, until someone figures out how it can also water lawns.

Henry Payne is auto critic for The Detroit News. Find him at hpayne@detroitnews.com or Twitter @HenryEPayne.

2017 Honda Clarity Fuel Cell

Power plant Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell driving AC electric motor
Transmission Single-speed automatic (with Sport mode)
Weight 4,134 pounds
Price $59,365 (only available as lease for $369 a month)
Power 174 horsepower, 221 pound-feet of torque
Performance 0-60 mph, 8.5 seconds (est.)
Fuel economy EPA 68 city/66 highway/67 combined

Report card

Lows Where’s the closest pump?; hydrogen isn’t zero-emission


Cartoon: NCAA Upsets

Posted by hpayne on March 22, 2017


Honda takes a gamble on electric

Posted by hpayne on March 22, 2017


Santa Barbara, Calif. – Against a tide of low consumer demand for battery-powered vehicles and loosening federal emissions rules, Honda announced this week that it will aggressively pursue vehicle electrification. With a goal of two-thirds of brand sales coming from battery or hydrogen-fuel cell vehicles by 2030, the Japanese manufacturer is bullish on alternative fuels.

Though a pioneer in battery and hydrogen powertrains beginning with its (now defunct) Insight hybrid in 2000, Honda has had little impact on the electric vehicle market and only sold one battery-powered model in 2016, the Accord Hybrid sedan. The move to electrification marks a significant shift for a brand that has built its U.S. success on gauging consumer demand for efficient, gas-powered small cars and crossovers.

In 2016 the Civic, CR-V and Accord were the three top-selling vehicles in the retail market – after full-size pickups – with combined sales of more than one million units.

“This is a long-term vision to make sustainable, electrified vehicles – true volume vehicles for Honda,” says Jim Burrell, assistant vice president for American Honda Environmental Business Development.

To mark Honda’s new product ambitions, Burrell and his team invited national media here to test drive its flagship EV, the Clarity Fuel Cell – the first of three alternative powertrain Clarity vehicles to hit the market this year. The others, a plug-in electric vehicle and full-EV, will be introduced at the New York Auto Show next month. Honda will also announce an all-new hybrid vehicle in 2018.

With its stylish design, roomy interior and 366-mile range, the Clarity Fuel Cell (initially offered only in California) is just the second hydrogen production car in the U.S. market (along with Toyota’s smaller Marij). It ranks with General Motors’ late-1990s EV-1 electric car and Chevy’s 2017 Bolt EV as ambitious efforts to change the course of vehicle propulsion away from gasoline.

Honda press materials say this change is driven by “society’s need for dramatic CO2 reductions (that) are real and immediate.”

“Honda is the only mainstream brand that has set an electrification goal that is this aggressive,” IHS senior auto analyst Stephanie Brinley says of the company’s 2030 target. “This is a statement that will set the tone in this company that this is what matters.”

What matters to American voters, however, seems to be more SUV production and less government regulation. According to a 2016 Gallup poll, global warming ranks 12th out of 13 in problems seen by Americans. Meanwhile, hybrid/electric vehicle sales have dropped to less than 3 percent of vehicle sales. The newly elected Trump administration reflects those priorities and has promised to reduce carbon emission mandates on automakers.

“Washington may not be supportive of (electrification),” acknowledges Honda’s Burrell. But he notes that the Trump administration will likely leave in place the waiver that allows California – the biggest auto market in the U.S. – to set its own greenhouse gas rules.

Burrel added: “If you focus on California, it is … driving a lot of this.”

IHS analyst Brinley agrees that government regulations are behind much of Honda’s product development. “They have to meet these emissions requirements not only in California but also in Japan, China and Europe,” she says. “And they are going to get stiffer.”

Honda long ago embraced the American market, backing up its sales with U.S. production. Honda now makes more cars in the U.S. (1.7 million) than in Japan (1.3 million). And it sells more of its U.S. production (from plants in Ohio, Indiana and Alabama) than any U.S. manufacturer except Ford.

With its electrification strategy, Burrell says that Honda is taking a risk given the apparent lack of consumer demand. But it’s not new territory for Honda.

“We don’t follow the same drummer as the rest of the industry,” he says. “In 1997 we introduced the compact CR-V crossover with unibody construction to what was then a non-existent segment. The car that started that segment was the CR-V.”

He says hydrogen and electric vehicles like the Clarity are also “something we genuinely believe in. Yes, the government requirements are a certain percentage of that, but we are at a point that (electrics) will take on a life of their own. Honda does things because it’s the right thing to do. This is best for the environment, and for Honda in the long term.”


Cartoon: Image Repair

Posted by hpayne on March 22, 2017


Payne: Mazda MX-5 RF’s beauty is more than skin deep

Posted by hpayne on March 22, 2017

Detroit News auto critic Henry Payne played with the

Does anyone remember that Audi introduced a V10-powered, 200-mph drop-top R8 Spyder at last year’s New York Auto Show? I didn’t think so. That’s because the Audi, like everything else that year, was a footnote to the surprise reveal of the stunning Mazda MX-5 Miata RF (for Retractable Fastback) hardtop roadster.

No one saw it coming. After all, the best-selling sports car of all time is autodom’s puppy dog – playful, fun and adorable.

But sexy?

With its flying rear buttress b-pillars borrowed from Ferrari and fully automatic drop top borrowed from Corvette, the RF melted whatever snow was still on the ground in Gotham. In defiance of Soul Red Mazda tradition, the show car was painted Machine Gray – and still I couldn’t take my eyes off it. Baby got back.

A year later and the RF is ready for prime time. A show car no more, it made its much-anticipated media testing debut in San Diego this March. It didn’t disappoint. The RF (or maybe the RF is for Really Fantastic) is a head-turner with specs that make it the most capable Miata ever. And don’t think Mazda doesn’t know it: The RF will come with a $2,600 upcharge from the soft-top Miata compared to the old hardtop upcharge of $800.

Mazda anticipates that the RF will not only make up a healthy 60 percent of sales, but will attract more affluent female buyers to an already female-friendly brand.

I love the soft-top Miata. Unmoor the ragtop from the windscreen and it stows behind me as easily as throwing off a blanket. Feel raindrops? Reach back and pull it overhead like a quilt on a cold night. But I’m a long-armed ape. Smaller drivers will prefer the reduced air turbulence of the Targa top, and the simple, auto toggle-switch in the console that stows the roof in just 13 seconds (while creeping along at up to 6 mph in traffic).

Did I say Targa? Mazda can’t utter that copyrighted Porsche term but the comparison to the iconic 911 variant is deserved. Wee though it is, the RFs (Real Ferrari-like?) will also remind enthusiasts of 1960s lookers like the Ferrari 275 GTB. Such comparisons, Mazda hopes, will attract richer demographics as well. The sports car attracted plenty of gawkers during my morning sprint though the hills of Southern California.

But the RF’s beauty is more than skin deep.

Mazda claims much better aerodynamics which will perk the ears of Mazda’s driver enthusiast core. This is the most raced car in America after all. Mazda says that roll-hoop requirements will keep the Targa-top out of more serious SCCA club racing, but weekend warriors will no doubt notice higher straightaway speeds with the reduced drag coefficient. Mazda isn’t releasing numbers yet, but I’m betting the car-nut mags already have their testing equipment strapped to the car.

The Targa top is also a marvel of packaging – adding just 113 pounds to the 2,332-pound base Miata’s lithe frame, maintaining the car’s superb weight balance, and poaching not an inch on trunk space.

Otherwise, the Miata remains unchanged from the acclaimed fifth-generation roller skate that thrilled us just two years ago.

My RF date came after knee replacement surgery on my 6-foot-5 frame. I told my surgeon and physical therapist (who has suffered through four knee surgeries with my demands) that I had to have the strength and range-of-leg-motion to get into the smallest sports car made in just five weeks. She took the challenge in stride (probably because it didn’t sound as bonkers as a previous request that I had to race a Porsche just two weeks after arthroscopic surgery).

She got me to 110 degrees range of knee motion. That was (just) enough to fold into the MX-5’s cockpit which is the size of a large suitcase. Worse is the passenger compartment and its cramped dash. The glove compartment is between the seats, meaning I have to dislocate my shoulder in order to reach it. Going topless, my head stuck out of the roof, making my cranium the roll bar.

Once behind the wheel of MX-5, however, all ergonomic concerns are forgiven. Few cars are as fun to drive. Over Southern California’s twisted hills, the short-wheelbase RF was a tossable toy.

Mazda has set the table with all the tools right where they should be: Steering wheel straight ahead. Three gauges, tach in the middle. Short-throw, six-speed box. Peppy, 155-horse inline-4 engine. Accelerator and brake pedals perfectly spaced for heel-and-toe downshifts.

Those flying-buttress rear pillars might make a serious blind spot on a bigger car, but they’re not an issue in this go-kart. I can practically loosen the lug nuts on all four wheels without ever leaving the driver’s seat.

With its higher price point, Miata won’t bother with the base Sport trim – offering the RF only in Club and Grand Touring trims. My tester was the posh, leather- and nav-equipped GT, which is going to make life hard on the more upscale brand buyers looking at the Fiata (Fiat’s 124 Spider which shares a chassis with MX-5). My preference, though, is for the Club version with its stiffer Bilstein shocks and track-must, limited-slip rear differential.

The fifth-gen MX-5 is an important step for America’s favorite sports car. Iconic as it may be to Mazda’s ZOOM-ZOOM brand, the Miata had to be co-developed with Fiat in order to justify the enormous costs of a small production car. Sixty years on from European sports car nostalgia, the Mazda now has to set expectations for a new generation of buyers. The sharp, Mazda-esque styling of the soft top was bold – and now RF (for Reach Forward) sets a new bar.

Happily, Mazda’s crack team of engineers and marketing gurus seem up to the challenge of all that heavy lifting. Which means the toughest question you and I have to answer when we jump into the RF is: Should I buy it in Machine Gray or Soul Red?

Henry Payne is auto critic for The Detroit News. Find him at hpayne@detroitnews.com or Twitter @HenryEPayne.

2017 Mazda MX-5 Miata RF



Power plant 2.0-liter, dual overhead-cam 4-cylinder
Transmission 6-speed manual; 6-speed automatic
Weight 2,445 pounds
Price $32,430 base
Power 155 horsepower, 148 pound-feet of torque
Performance 0-60 mph, 5.9 seconds (Car and Driver)
Fuel economy EPA 29 city/33 highway/29 combined (manual); 29 city/35 highway/29 combined (auto)

Report card

Lows Tight for 6-footers; limited-slip only in Club



Cartoon: Trump Budget Cuts

Posted by hpayne on March 20, 2017


Cartoon: CBO Prediction

Posted by hpayne on March 20, 2017


CARtoon: Save Manuels

Posted by hpayne on March 20, 2017


Cartoon: Warming Spring NYT

Posted by hpayne on March 20, 2017


Cartoon: Kong Economy

Posted by hpayne on March 14, 2017


Cartoon: NCAA Bracket

Posted by hpayne on March 14, 2017


Cartoon: Trump Russia and the NYT

Posted by hpayne on March 13, 2017